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What is the MMI?

Developed by the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University, the MMI (Multiple Mini Interview system) is a proven system for reliably assessing the soft skills of candidates in the academic, public, and corporate sectors.

Published Evidence

There are currently 145 publications on the MMI in peer reviewed journals, authored by researchers from around the world. The research demonstrates that the MMI is a reliable and valid soft skills assessment system, does not disadvantage applicants from under-represented minorities, and enhances diversity in the candidates selected.  The research also indicates that the MMI is effective with interview times as low as 5 minutes.

The following peer reviewed references provide the conclusions from a sample of published articles on the effectiveness and efficiency of the MMI assessment system.

  • Do admissions Multiple Mini-Interview and traditional interview scores predict subsequent academic performance? A study of five California medical schools
    Jerant A, Henderson MC, Griffin E, Hall TR, Kelly CJ, Peterson EM, Wofsy D, Tancredi DJ, Sousa FJ, Franks P  Acad Med 2019, 94(3):388-395
    Conclusion:  MMI scores were more strongly associated with subsequent academic performance measures than were traditional interview scores.
  • Multiple min-interview predictive validity for performance on a pharmacy licensing examination
    Cameron AJ, MacKeigan LD, Mitsakakis N, Pubsley JA  Med Educ 2017, 51(4):379-389
    Conclusion:  These findings, from a single cohort of undergraduates, provide the first report of the predictive validity of the MMI for performance on pharmacy licensure examinations and thereby strengthen the evidence for its use in health professions selection.
  • Association between a medical school admission process using the multiple mini-interview and national licensing examination scores
    Eva KW, Reiter HI, Rosenfeld J, Trinh K, Wood TJ, Norman GR  JAMA 2012, 308(21):2233-2240
    Conclusion:  Compared with students who were rejected by an admission process that used MMI assessment, students who were accepted scored higher on Canadian national licensing examinations.
  • Development and assessment of the Multiple Mini-Interview in a School of Pharmacy admissions model
    Cox WC, McLaughlin, JE, Singer D, Lewis M, Dinkins MM  Am J Pharm Educ 2015, 79(4):53-60
    Conclusion:  This study provides additional support for the use of the MMI as an admissions tool in pharmacy education.
  • The effect of differential weighting of academics, experiences, and competencies measured by Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) on race and ethnicity of cohorts accepted to one medical school
    Terregino CA, McConnell M, Reiter HI  Acad Med 2015, 90(12):1651-1657
    Conclusion:  Sole reliance on the MMI for final admissions decisions, after threshold academic/experiential preparation are met, promotes diversity with the accepted applicant pool.
  • Assessment of non-clinical attributes in paramedicine using multiple mini-interviews
    Tavares W & Mause J  Emerg Med J 2015, 32(1):70-75
    Conclusion:  The MMI demonstrated evidence of reliability and validity for the assessment of non-clinical attributes in paramedic contexts.  Non-clinical attributes and paramedic skills are likely distinct but related constructs, each contributing to the construct of paramedic practice.
  • A comparison of behavioral and multiple mini interview formats in physician assistant program admissions
    Jones PE & Forister JG  Physician Assist Educ 2011, 22(1):36-40
    Conclusion:  In this study the multiple mini-interview format was a more reliable admissions tool in detecting latent professionalism attributes among Physician Assistant program applicants.  The multiple mini-interview format appeared to measure professional potential and organizational fit better than the behavioral interview format.
  • Validity MMI scores: are we measuring multiple attributes?
    Oliver T, Hecker K, Hausdorf PA, Conlon P  Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2014, 19(3):379-392
    Conclusion:  The results provide validity evidence for assessing multiple non-cognitive attributes during the MMI process and reinforce the importance of developing MMI stations and scoring rubrics for attributes identified as important for future success in school and practice.
  • The multiple min-interview: how long is long enough?
    Dodson M, Crotty B, Prideaux D, Carne R, Ward A, deLeeuw E  Med Educ 2009, 43(2):168-174
    Conclusion:  Reducing the duration of the MMI stations from 8 to 5 minutes conserves resources with minimal effect on applicant ranking and test reliability.
  • Development and pilot testing of a multiple mini-interview for admission to a pharmacy degree program
    Cameron AJ & MacKeigan LD Am J Pharm Educ 2012, 76(1): Article 10
    Conclusion:  MMI feasibility was confirmed, based on the finding that interview scores were reliable and this admissions tool measures different attributes than do the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) and Prepharmacy Average (PPA).
  • Assessment of applicants to the veterinary curriculum using a multiple min-interview method
    Hecker K, Donnon T, Fluentealba C, Hall D, Illanes O, Morock DW, Muelling C  J Vet Med Educ  2009, 36(2):166-173
    Conclusion:  This analysis provides preliminary evidence of the reliability, validity, and acceptability of the MMI in assessing the noncognitive attributes of applicants for veterinary medical school admissions.
  • Assessment of non-cognitive traits through the admission multiple mini-interview
    Lemay JF, Lockyer JM, Collin VT, Brownell AK Med Educ 2007, 41(6):573-579
    Conclusion:  The MMI is able to assess different non-cognitive attributes and our study provides additional evidence for its reliability and validity.  The  MMI offers a fairer and more defensible assessment of applicants to medical school than the traditional interview.
  • Multiple mini-interviews: opinions of candidates and interviewers
    Humphrey S, Dowson S, Wall D, Diwakar V, Goodyear HM Med Educ 2008,42(2):207-213
    Conclusion:  Both candidates and interviewers agreed that the MMI format was reliable, fair and asked appropriate , easy-to-understand questions.
  • First experience with multiple mini interview for medical school admission in Brazil: Does in work in a different cultural scenario?
    Daniel-Filho DA, Pires EMSG, Paes AT, Trosler EJ, Silva SCABS, Granato MF, Cout TB, Barreto JKS, Campes AH, Mente JCM, Schrartsman C Med Teach 2017, 39:1033-1039
    Conclusion: A significant majority of the applicants (98%) and all the raters believed MMIs were important in selecting students with a more adequate profile to study medicine.  The general reliability of the selection process was excellent and it was fully accepted by the applicants and raters (School of Medicine Sao Paulo, Brazil).
  • The multiple mini-interview for selecting medical residents: first experience in the Middle East region
    Ahmed A, Qayed KI, Abdulrahman M, Tavares W, Rosenfeld J Med Teach 2014, 36(8):7-3-709
    Conclusion:  The MMI offers a fair and more reliable assessment of applicants to medical residency programs.  The present data show that this assessment technique applied in a non-western country and Arab culture still produced reliable results.
  • The multiple min-interview: a possible solution to problems associated with the interview process for a selected entry Allied Health Program
    Cope PY, Clendon S, Nicholson T J Allied Health 2017, 46(4):91-95
    Conclusion:  Overall, applicants indicated that they found the MMI process to be fair, simple and non-threatening.  The faculty members who interviewed the students also indicated that the process was fairer than the traditional interview, easier for them to manage because they could focus on one specific aspect of the interview process, and gave them the opportunity to meet all of the applicants.
  • Multiple mini-interviews predict clerkship and licensing examination performance
    Reiter HI, Eva KW, Rosenfeld J, Norman GR  Med Educ 2007, 41(4):378-384
    Conclusion:  The MMI complements pre-admission cognitive measures to predict performance outcomes during clerkship and on the Canadian national licensing examination.
  • Does practice make perfect?  The effect of coaching and retesting on selection tests used for admission to an Australian medical school
    Griffin, B, Harding DW, Wilson IG, Yeomans ND  Med J Aust 2008, 189(5):270-273
    Conclusion:  Coaching was ineffective in improving MMI scores, with coached candidates actually having a significantly lower score on one of the nine interview tasks (stations).  A substantial number of Australian medical school applicants attend coaching before undertaking entry selection tests, but our study shows that coaching does not assist and may even hinder their performance on an MMI.